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Glossary

Acoustooptical quality factor

M2 = n6p2/ρV3 - acousto-optical quality factor. Its value is determined by the properties of the material - the refractive index n, the corresponding element of the elastic-optical tensor pij, the density ρ, the speed of sound V. This parameter is one of the most important for the overall assessment of the effectiveness of the acousto-optical material. The quality factor M1 = n7p2/ρV, M3 = n7p2/ρV2 and M4 = n6p2V/ρ3, which characterize the performance of the acousto-optic device in cases where the maximum ultrasonic front length, conversion width and power density are limited, respectively, are also less frequently used. The DB gives M1 in cm2 *sec/g, M2 in sec3/g and M3 in cm*sec2/g.

Dielectric constant

Dielectric permittivity is a value that characterizes the dielectric properties of the medium - its response to an electric field. In the relation D = εE, where E is the electric field strength, D is the electric induction in the medium, the dielectric permittivity is the coefficient of proportionality ε. In most dielectrics at not very strong fields the dielectric permittivity does not depend on the field E. In strong electric fields (comparable to the intra-atomic fields), and in some dielectrics (e.g., ferroelectrics), the dependence of D on E is nonlinear in normal fields. The value of dielectric permittivity depends significantly on the type of substance and on external conditions (temperature, pressure, etc.). In variable electric fields the dielectric permittivity depends on the frequency of the field dielectric permittivity.

Elastic wave attenuation coefficient

The coefficient of attenuation of elastic waves B characterizes the loss of acoustic energy due to dislocation friction or interaction with conduction electrons and phonon-phon interactions, as well as the scattering of acoustic energy on lattice defects, etc. [1]. The DB is given in dB/cm.

Coefficient of linear thermal expansion

The coefficient of linear thermal expansion αL = l-1(dl/dT) p К-1 is the relative change in linear size of a body when heated by dT degrees at constant pressure [2].

In general, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion can be different when measured along different directions: αx, αy, αz. For isotropic bodies αx = αy = αz.

Linear electro-optical effect coefficient

The linear electro-optical effect coefficient rijk determines the change in refractive indexes caused by the action of the electric field [1]. In the DB it is given in m/V.

Electromechanical coupling coefficient

The electromechanical coupling coefficient is defined as the ratio of the mutual elastic (Um) and electric energy density to the geometric mean of the internal elastic Ul and electric (Ud) energy densities [1]: k = Um/(Ul - Ud)-2.
k is measured as a percentage.
k31 - coupling coefficient, which corresponds to the resonance of oscillations along the length of the plate, having electrodes on the largest surfaces, the polar vector perpendicular to the largest planes.
kt - coupling coefficient, which corresponds to the resonance of oscillations along the polar vector along the thickness of the plate having the electrodes on the largest planes.
k33 - coupling coefficient, which corresponds to the main resonance mode of oscillations along the polar vector along the length of the cylinder with the electrodes applied on its end surfaces.
k15 - coupling coefficient, which corresponds to the resonance of oscillations along the thickness of the plate, having electrodes on the largest surfaces, the polar vector lies in the plane of the plate.

Density

Density is a value equal to the ratio of body mass to volume [3]. In the DB it is given in g/cm3.

Refractive index

Показатель преломления - отношение фазовых скоростей света соответственно в первой и второй изотропных средах [4]. Отношение скоростей распространения оптического излучения в первой и второй средах [5]. У оптически анизотропных веществ наблюдается двойное лучепреломление: расщепление преломляющего светового луча на два луча, распространяющихся с разными скоростями. Оптические свойства кристаллов кубической сингонии характеризуются одним значением показателя преломления. Кристаллы тетрагональной, гексагональной и тригональной сингоний оптически одноосны, причем оптическая ось совпадает с главной осью симметрии кристалла. Все направления, кроме оптической оси, характеризуются двумя показателями преломления: no - показатель преломления обыкновенного луча и ne - показатель преломления необыкновенного луча, зависящего от ориентации. Кристаллы ромбической, моноклинной и триклинной сингоний характеризуются тремя значениями показателя преломления: na, nb и nc [1]. The refractive index is the ratio of phase velocities of light in the first and second isotropic media, respectively [4]. The ratio of velocities of propagation of optical radiation in the first and second media [5]. Optically anisotropic substances have double refraction: splitting of a refracting light beam into two beams propagating at different speeds. The optical properties of crystals of cubic syngony are characterized by a single value of the refractive index. Crystals of tetragonal, hexagonal and trigonal synergies are optically uniaxial, with the optical axis coinciding with the major axis of symmetry of the crystal. All directions, except for the optical axis, are characterized by two refractive indices: no is the index of refraction of the ordinary beam and ne is the index of refraction of the extraordinary beam, which depends on the orientation. Crystals of rhombic, monoclinic and triclinic syngonies are characterized by three values of the refractive index: na, nb and nc [1].

Transparency Band

Transparency Band - a region of optical radiation wavelengths in which it does not change the set of frequencies of its constituent monochromatic radiations and their relative intensities.

Piezoelectric constants

Piezoelectric constants are the coefficients d, e, g, h in the relations Pl = dlijσij, Pl = -elijεjk, El = -glijσjk, El = -hlijεij. El is the vector of electric field strength, Pl is the vector of electric polarization, σij is the mechanical stress, εjk is the mechanical strain. All piezoelectric constants are related to each other, so that when describing the piezoelectric properties of a crystal we can limit ourselves to only one, for example dlij [1]. The following dimensions of piezoelectric constants are used in the DB: hlij, 109 N/Cl, glij, 10-3 m2 /Cl; elij, Cl/m2lij, 10-12 Cl/N.

Solubility

Solubility is the ability of a substance to form homogeneous systems with other substances - solutions in which the substance is in the form of individual atoms, ions, molecules or particles. Solubility is expressed by the concentration of the dissolved substance in its saturated solution [2]. In the DB, solubility is given in g/100 g of solution.

Sound velocity

The speed of sound is the speed of movement in a medium of an elastic wave, provided that the shape of its profile remains unchanged [5]. In monocrystalline solids, the speed of sound depends on the direction of wave propagation relative to the crystallographic axes [5].

Tangent of the dielectric loss angle

The tangent of the dielectric loss angle is the ratio of the real and imaginary dielectric permittivity [5].

Hardness

Hardness is the resistance of a substance to fracture and the formation of permanent deformation when mechanical forces are applied to its surface [4]. The hardness according to Mohs is given in the database. In this scale, numbers in ascending order denote single-crystalline substances (minerals) arranged in such a way that each subsequent one was able to leave a scratch on the previous one. The extreme substances in the Mohs scale are talc (the least hard substance) and diamond [4]. The DB also gives the Knoop hardness (in GPa) [1].

Boiling Point

Boiling point is the temperature of equilibrium transition of liquid to vapor at constant external pressure [5]. In the DB the boiling point at atmospheric pressure is given in degrees Kelvin.

Curie temperature

The Curie temperature is the temperature of the reversible transition of a crystal from the ferroelectric (polar) phase to the paraelectric (non-polar) phase for ferroelectrics [1]. In the DB it is given in degrees Kelvin.

Melting point

Melting temperature is the temperature of equilibrium phase transition of a solid to liquid state at constant external pressure [5]. In the DB, the boiling point at atmospheric pressure is given in degrees Kelvin.

Heat capacity

Heat capacity is a value equal to the ratio of the amount of heat required to heat a body to the temperature difference of the body [3].

Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity determines the amount of thermal energy transferred through a unit area per unit time at a unit temperature gradient [1]. The thermal conductivity coefficient in the DB is given in W/m*grad.

Specific heat capacity

Specific heat capacity is equal to the ratio of the heat capacity of a substance to its mass [4]. In the DB, it is given in J/kg*K.

Elastic constants

Elastic constants are coefficients of proportionality cijkl and sijkl in the equation of the generalized Hooke's law [1], in which for sufficiently small stresses σij the strain εij is proportional to the magnitude of the applied stress, i.e.
σij = cijklεkl, i, j, k, l = 1, 2, 3.

Hooke's linear law can be written in inverse form:
εkl = sijklσij
cijkl - elastic stiffness constant (in DB given in N/m2).
sijkl - elastic stiffness constant (in the database given in m2/H).

Elastic-optical constant

The elastic-optical constant (Pockels constant) is a quantity characterizing the dependence of the refractive index of a material on the elastic deformation. Elastic-optical constant p = (εo - ε) εo2S, where εo and ε are dielectric permittivities of unperturbed and disturbed media respectively, S is the medium deformation [5].

Literature:

1. Acoustic Crystals. Handbook. Blistanov A.A., Bondarenko V.S., Chkalova V.V. et al. Under the editorship of M.P. Shaskol'skaya. Under Ed. by M.P. Shaskol'skaya. M.: Nauka, 1982, 632 p. (in Russian)

2. Wikipedia.

3. Handbook of physical quantities. Edited by I.S. Grigoryev and E.Z. Meilikhov. Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1991, 1232 p. (in Russian)

4. Stepin B.D. Application of the International System of Units of Physical Units in Chemistry. Moscow: Higher School, 1990, 96 p. (in Russian)

5. Physical Encyclopedic Dictionary. Edited by A.M. Prokhorov. M.: Sov.encyclopedia, 1983, 944 p. (in Russian)